Summer is ending, and Halloween will be here before we know it. Imagining all those sugary treats brings to mind one of the most important reasons to get an eye exam: checking for diabetes-related eye disease.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which there is a high blood sugar level over a long period and that can cause damage throughout the body, including the eyes. Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that occurs in people who have diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious sight-threatening complication of diabetes.
Over time, diabetes damages the blood vessels in the retina. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when these tiny blood vessels leak blood and other fluids. This causes the retinal tissue to swell, resulting in cloudy or blurred vision. The condition usually affects both eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the more likely they will develop diabetic retinopathy. If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness.
Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy include:
• Seeing spots or floaters
• Blurred vision
• Having a dark or empty spot in the center of your vision
• Difficulty seeing well at night
When people with diabetes experience long periods of high blood sugar, fluid can accumulate in the lens inside the eye that controls focusing. This changes the curvature of the lens, leading to blurred vision. However, once blood sugar levels are controlled, blurred distance vision will improve. Patients with diabetes who can better control their blood sugar levels will slow the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy.
Often the early stages of diabetic retinopathy have no visual symptoms. That is why the American Optometric Association recommends that everyone with diabetes have a comprehensive dilated eye examination once a year. Early detection and treatment can limit the potential for significant vision loss from diabetic retinopathy.
Treatment of diabetic retinopathy varies depending on the extent of the disease. People with diabetic retinopathy may need laser surgery to seal leaking blood vessels or to discourage other blood vessels from leaking. An eye doctor might need to inject medications into the eye to decrease inflammation or stop the formation of new blood vessels. People with advanced cases of diabetic retinopathy might need a surgical procedure to remove and replace the gel-like fluid in the back of the eye, called the vitreous. Surgery may also be needed to repair a retinal detachment. This is a separation of the light-receiving lining in the back of the eye.
If you are diabetic, you can help prevent or slow the development of diabetic retinopathy by:
• Taking your prescribed medication
• Sticking to your diet
• Exercising regularly
• Controlling high blood pressure
• Avoiding alcohol and smoking
So, eat less doughnuts and hit the gym a little more often. You will be happy you did later.
Dr. Patrick Utnehmer, Promenade Optometry & Lasik, (951) 296-2211.